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In Armenia there is a strong preference for having son. Son preference combined with access to advanced technologies that allow early identification of sex of the fetus has skewed the natural balance of the sexes at the time of birth. This is compounded by declining fertility rates, which are down from 2.62 children per woman in the early 1990s to a current average of 1.6 children per woman in Armenia.

Deviation from the biologically natural sex ratio at birth (SRB) of 102 to 106 boys per 100 girls has been evident in Armenia from the 1990s onwards. Ratios as high as 120 boys per 100 girls were observed in the early 2000s, according to the National Statistical Service. The ratio stabilized at 114 boys per 100 girls in the early 2010s.

As a result of wide-scale work conducted by the Government jointly with development partners, including international and local organizations, it dropped to 112 boys per 100 girls in 20161 and the latest data provided by NSS for the first six months of 2017 shows continued progress at 110 boys per 100 girls. This decrease in such a short period is undoubtedly a success. However, the sex-ratio at birth in Armenia is still higher than the biologically normal level.